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2019-8-7 13:58:00 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
原文:

Of Studies

Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment, and disposition of business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best, from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humor of a scholar. They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need proyning, by study; and studies themselves, do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books, else distilled books are like common distilled waters, flashy things. Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit: and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know, that he doth not. Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtile; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in mores. Nay, there is no stond or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies; like as diseases of the body, may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man’s wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the Schoolmen; for they are cymini sectores. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study 197 the lawyers’ cases. So every defect of the mind, may have a special receipt.


译:

知识可以作为消谴,可以作为装璜,也可以增长才干。

当你孤独寂寞的时候,阅读可以消谴。当你高谈阔论的时候,知识可以装璜。当你处世行事的时候。正确地运用知识,意谓着力量。懂得事物因果的人,是幸福的人;有实际经验者虽然能办理个别性的事物,但若要综观整体,运筹全局,却唯掌握知识才能办到。

求知太慢会驰惰,为装璜而求知是自欺欺人,完全照书本条条办事会变成偏执的书呆子。

求知可以改进人的天性,而实验又可以改进知识本身。人的天性犹如野生的花草。求知学习好比修剪移裁。而实习尝试则可以检验修正知识本身的真伪。

狡诈者轻鄙学问,愚鲁者羡慕学问,惟独聪明者善于运用学问。知识本身并没有告诉人们怎样运用它,运用它的方法仍在书本之外。这是一门技艺,不经实践就不能说到。不可专为挑剔辩驳去读书;但也不可轻易相信书本;求知的目的比是为了吹嘘炫耀,而应该为了寻找真理,启迪智慧。

有的知识只须浅尝,有的知识只要粗知;只有少数专门知识需要深入钻研,仔细揣摩。所以有的书只要读其中一部分,有的书只需知其中梗概既可;而对于少数好书,则要精读,细读反复的读…

读书使人的头脑充实,讨论使人明辩是非,作笔记则能使人的知识精确。因此,如果一个人不愿意做笔记,他的记忆力就必需强而可靠。如果一个人不读书又想冒充博学多知,他就必定很狡诘,才能掩饰他的无知。

读史使人明智,读诗使人聪慧,演算使人精密,哲理使人深刻,论理学使人有修养,逻辑修辞使人善辩...正如身体上的缺陷,可以通过运动来改善一样;同样一个思维不集中的人,他可以研习数学;因为数学稍有不仔细就会出错。缺乏分析判断能力的人,他可以研习经院哲学;因为这门学问最讲究繁琐辩证。不善于推理的人,可以研究法律学。如此等等,这种种头脑的缺陷,都是可以通过求知来疗治的。






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